head start performance standards

the ofr/gpo partnership is committed to presenting accurate and reliable regulatory information on federalregister.gov with the objective of establishing the xml-based federal register as an acfr-sanctioned publication in the future. they provide a clear road map for current and prospective grantees to support high-quality head start services and to strengthen the outcomes of the children and families head start serves. this regulation is intended to improve the quality of head start services so that programs have a stronger impact on children’s learning and development. this final rule reorganizes previous program performance standards to make it easier for grantees to implement them and for the public to understand the broad range of head start program services. we believe the benefits of these changes will be significant for the children and families head start serves. [11 12] as such, these program performance standards substantially build upon and improve the standards related to the education of children in head start programs. in addition, we analyzed the types of technical assistance requested by and provided to head start agencies and programs. in the nprm, we proposed to increase the positive impact of head start programs serving three- to five-year-olds by increasing the minimum hours and days of operation and to codify long-standing interpretation of continuous services for programs that serve infants and toddlers, in concert with increasing standards for educational quality. it is our expectation that the revisions to the final rule will ensure all grantees, programs, and parents understand the foundational role parents of head start children play in shaping the program at the local and national level. the final rule includes new provisions in the requirements for health, education, and family engagement services that elevate the role of head start programs in addressing these public health problems. we received a range of comments on our proposal to increase the minimum service duration for head start and early head start programs. commenters also requested that we update existing data collections to account for changes in the program performance standards. we received many comments on part 1301. below we discuss these comments and our rationale for any changes to the regulatory text in this subpart. response: we maintained the language proposed in the nprm because it is the statutory requirement in the act that the policy council is responsible for the direction of the head start and early head start programs. there is guidance in the nonprofit community about the various ways to structure and apply a conflict of interest policy. in this section, we retain a number of requirements from the previous program standards and included requirements to conform to the act. response: in the final rule, we maintained the alignment with the act with respect to the duties and responsibilities of the policy council. these commenters stressed that parents are foundational to head start and that parent committees are a long-standing cornerstone of the program. in response to comments we have added a requirement that the parent committee have a process for communication with the policy council and policy committee at the delegate level. these commenters suggested that the proposed requirements amount to capitulation to the will of the governing body and are not actually impasse procedures, in contradiction with the act’s requirement. in this subpart, we combined all previous requirements related to child and family eligibility, and program requirements for the recruitment, selection, and enrollment of eligible families. we received no comments directly for this section but made changes to be consistent with revisions in § 1302.11. this section includes the requirements for how programs define a service area for their grant application and the requirements for a community assessment. response: we believe removing the prohibition on overlapping service areas gives greater flexibility to local programs in a manner that will benefit the children and families they serve. response: the intent of this requirement is for head start programs to consider whether it is feasible to implement a mixed-income delivery model. this section includes the process for programs to determine, verify, and document child and family eligibility for head start programs. for other suggestions, we want to allow local programs the flexibility in their selection process to determine which children and families are most in need. we realize that programs want to be conscientious about proper eligibility verification so we will continue to provide guidance and support about the implementation of these standards as requested. we revised this standard to reflect that the high-quality publicly funded pre-kindergarten must be accessible for the requirement to apply and clarified that this priority is part of the selection criteria programs establish as described in paragraph (a)(1). comment: we received some comments about the requirement in paragraph (b) for 10 percent of a program’s funded enrollment to be composed of children eligible for services under idea. comment: some commenters recommended we revise paragraph (b) to establish continuous eligibility for children from the time they enroll in early head start until they enter kindergarten. comment: we received comments that supported the provision in paragraph (c) to require a program to use their community assessment to determine if there are families experiencing homelessness or children in foster care in the area who could benefit from services and allowing programs flexibility to reserve up to three percent of slots for special populations. comment: we received comments in support of and opposed to the standard proposed in paragraph (d) for programs to consider the feasibility to enroll children from diverse economic backgrounds who would be funded from other sources. we think it is very important for programs to realize the importance of regular attendance and work with families when appropriate to foster regular attendance. response: we believe the 85 percent threshold is appropriate for early head start and head start programs and has been the long-standing threshold in the previous head start regulation. this section outlines the program performance standards pertaining to the suspension and expulsion of head start children. some commenters suggested that expulsion should be allowed as a last resort for programs, that in some instances the threat of expulsion prevents parents from being disruptive to programs, and suggested that keeping children in the program may not be in their best interest. we believe it is critical to support parents from the time their children enroll in head start and to partner with them to address challenging behaviors. finally, we agree it is important for programs to have the tools necessary to address behavioral problems in children without the use of suspension and expulsion. we maintain the overarching policy that programs are prohibited from charging parents of eligible children a fee for their child’s participation in a head start program. comment: some commenters supported the standard in paragraph (b)(2) to encourage mixed income settings and the ability of head start programs to charge a fee to private pay or otherwise funded children. response: we have codified the requirement to provide diapers and formula in head start programs in § 1302.42(e)(1) of the standards and clarified here that fees are not allowed for activities, such as field trips, that are part of the head start day. comment: we received comments on provisions in paragraphs (a)(1) and (3) of the nprm regarding conversion to early head start. comment: the nprm proposed to increase the minimum hours and days of program operation for head start preschoolers in the center-based option. these commenters noted the research base and potential improvement for children’s outcomes, but stated that they would not support the policy without adequate funding because it would deprive many children of early learning opportunities due to a decrease in available head start slots. the majority of commenters either opposed or expressed significant concerns with the provisions to increase the program day and year for head start preschoolers, with many citing multiple reasons for their concerns or opposition. some commenters opposed or expressed concerns about the proposed increase in duration for head start preschoolers because of the potential impact on teachers and other staff. however, we agree with commenters about the negative effects of implementing this model in such a way that could lead to significant reductions in the number of children and families served by head start programs, and recognize the need to allow programs and communities sufficient time to thoughtfully plan and adjust their operations. we made this service duration requirement less burdensome by changing the requirement to a total of 1,020 hours annually, as opposed to a minimum number of days per year and hours per day as proposed in the nprm. we have long interpreted this to mean a minimum of a full school day and full-year of services for infants and toddlers, and defined this in the nprm as a minimum of 230 days of service per year for a minimum of 6 hours per day. comment: commenters wrote in response to the proposed teacher:child ratios and group size for the center-based option described in this section. we received comments both in support of and against our proposal for how programs should determine the age of the majority of children in a class to set ratios and group size. response: we modified the provision in paragraph (d) to make it clear that programs must meet local or state licensing requirements regardless of whether the licensing entity requires that they be licensed. however, to reduce burden on grantees, we reinstated home-based as a standard option for preschoolers in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. however, we believe greater flexibility for meeting the number of group socializations is appropriate and changed the requirement in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) to clarify that the number of required group socializations are for each family, not each child. comment: some commenters wrote in reference to the proposal in paragraph (b) that “programs must maintain appropriate ratios during all hours of program operation” and noted this language was unnecessary for the home-based option. additionally, we revised paragraph (b) to improve clarity of the ratio and group size requirements for the family child care option. response: we made a number of changes to the locally-designed program option waiver described in this section. response: we agree with the need for clear limits to group size and teacher:child ratios in locally-designed options so that high-quality is maintained. we also revised the service duration requirement for the family child care option described in § 1302.23(c) to reflect language from previous standards to state that programs must meet the child care needs of families. therefore, under § 1302.21(c)(4), programs may request a one-year extension of the increased service duration requirements for center-based head start and early head start described in § 1302.21(c)(1) and (c)(2)(iii) if necessary to prevent displacement of children enrolled in the program at the time this rule becomes effective. response: though we did not revise the regulation to specifically reference udl, many of its principles are long standing head start and early head start requirements that are expanded and enhanced in this final rule. commenters noted that the term biliteracy expands on the goals of bilingualism to include a focus on reading, and eventually writing, in the home language. response: we believe it is important to include the key elements of the teaching and learning environment so programs clearly understand the components they need to implement to have high-quality education programming. some commenters wrote in support of our proposal to replace the family style meal requirement with a less prescriptive proposal that focused on meals as a time for learning, socialization, and conversation. a program must not use physical activity as a reward or punishment.” we believe this provision will allow local programs to implement policies appropriate to their program design and the needs of their children. we expect programs to be thorough in reviewing their curriculum and the professional development system that supports teachers’ implementation of curriculum. in paragraph (a)(2), we more clearly articulate the important requirement of supporting all teachers with support, feedback, and supervision in order to continuously improve curriculum implementation. we made changes to strengthen and clarify the provisions in this section. comment: some commenters supported our proposal in paragraph (a)(5) for programs to help parents access services and support if their child has a significant delay in one or more areas of development that were likely to interfere with the child’s development and school success. we clarified that programs are start printed page 61333required to partner with parents to determine if needed supports and services are available through a child’s health insurance and/or whether it is appropriate to provide supports for the child pursuant to section 504 of the rehabilitation act if the child satisfies the definition of disability in section 705(9)(b) of the rehabilitation act. we revised paragraph (c)(2)(ii) and added new language at paragraph (c)(2)(iii) in the final rule to reflect this reality including mechanisms that support accurate and appropriate assessment processes. response: we revised this section to clarify and strengthen the standards. we did not revise the section to require a particular curriculum for serving children in the home-based program because we believe programs should have local flexibility to select a curriculum that best meets the needs of the children and families they serve. additionally, we added this new section to clarify that programs serving american indian and alaska native children may choose to engage in efforts to preserve, revitalize, restore, or maintain the tribal language(s) for these children. the rule is clear that programs are required to promote the health and well-being of all children in head start. comment: some commenters recommended we revise paragraph (a)(2) to recognize the unique role that indian health services plays for many children enrolled in tribal head start programs. we agree that our use of the term “health care professional” to apply to both health and oral health was confusing. we consolidated what were paragraphs (b)(1)(ii) and (iii) in the nprm into paragraph (b)(1)(ii) and revised the language to more clearly articulate our intent. comment: some commenters requested we require programs to provide diapers and formula for infants and toddlers during the portion of the day they attend the program. comment: some commenters recommended we specify in paragraph (a)(1) that nutrition services must be culturally and developmentally appropriate to ensure they respond to the needs of enrolled children. response: we did not think it was necessary to add a requirement for programs to train staff on how to properly handle and store breast milk because we think that is unnecessarily prescriptive in detailing how a program must meet the requirement that they properly store and handle breast milk. response: we agree that it is important for programs to understand the importance of mental health and the role of mental health consultants in promoting the well-being of head start children. comment: commenters stated that this section does not reflect the important role of parents and parental mental health.start printed page 61339 response: we agree that parents are critical to the promotion of child mental health and did not intend for the requirements to exclude them. commenters expressed concerns that staff do not have time to comply with the section’s requirements and that the requirements are too broad. therefore, we retained this section in the final rule; however, we have made some language changes to align the health and safety training for staff to the health and safety requirements in the ccdbg act. some commenters supported our inclusion of caring for our children basics and some suggested we require the specifics recommendations from basics and include them in the regulation. response: we agree with commenters that it may be difficult for programs to identify all equipment and materials that are covered by the cpsc and the astm. further, we did not specify in paragraph (b)(4) of this section what topics programs must include in the initial training and how often must they offer this training. we have also made this clear in subpart c of part 1303 on protections for the privacy of child records. thus, we believe the final rule appropriately reflects the statutory requirement that family engagement services be provided to improve children’s learning and development and the importance of strong family partnership services in support of that purpose. therefore, we do not think reorganizing the subparts is necessary to reflect parents’ essential roles in the lives of their children and as partners in the head start program. to address overarching concerns about conveying the centrality of family engagement and the important role of parents, we made some structural and other revisions to requirements in this section. because of the inclusive definitions we provide for “parent” and “family,” we did not amend the section to specifically list lgbt parents. we designed this section to align with the parent, family, and community engagement framework that has helped programs develop an ongoing process of individualized services based on family strengths and needs instead of the development of a single written plan. we did not intend for this section to diminish the program’s two-generation approach or the strength and breadth of family services. we revised this section to reframe a requirement that was in paragraph (c)(2) in the nprm and paragraph (c)(3) in the final rule to ensure programs review, evaluate, and track family needs and goals and appropriate strategies on an ongoing basis. in addition, we note this section promotes local flexibility in the development of community partnerships and there is no requirement for a program to have community plan. we believe the final rule sets a strong and reasonable way for head start programs to participate in these important state systems without duplication and burden. comment: some commenters were concerned our elimination of what was part 1308 in the prior rule meant we eliminated requirements for services to children with disabilities. comment: some commenters offered unqualified support for this section, but others expressed concerns about the proposal in paragraph (b) to provide services and supports while children are awaiting determination of idea eligibility. we believe coordination and collaboration with the local agencies responsible for implementing idea reflect an essential partnership in meeting the needs of children with disabilities in head start. comment: some commenters recommended that we include requirements for programs to assess their transition practices to ensure they effectively minimize the number of transitions and promote smooth transitions for children and families. comment: some commenters supported the requirements in paragraph (d) for early head start and head start to work together to support continuity of services from birth to five. as always, we encourage programs to identify the individual needs of head start children and families and work to meet those needs. comment: some commenters suggested that the entire subpart should refer to expectant families rather than pregnant women, or requested clarification about the scope of services required for a pregnant mother of an enrolled child who is not herself enrolled in early head start. comment: some commenters requested clarity about what we meant by “as quickly as possible” in regard to the requirement in paragraph (b) that programs support access to health care for pregnant women. comment: some commenters suggested we revise paragraph (a) and the title of this section to clarify the expectation for the level of service delivery. we believe programs can easily access this information and do not think changes are needed to the regulation. we do not think it is the best interest of head start children to allow exemptions from the background checks. in § 1303.3 we include title vii of the civil rights act among the other federal laws head start programs need to comply with. to clarify our intent we added the phrase “directly or through contract” to paragraph (b)(1) and clarify that transportation staff and contractors are also subject to these requirements, consistent with the policy proposed in the nprm. some commenters recommended we delete the list of what staff must not do and include a standard by which staff should aspire to conduct themselves instead. we agree it was appropriate to add a requirement to the standards of conduct that expressed the positive and supportive behavior all staff, consultants, and volunteers must exhibit. other commenters suggested we require all staff in all program options to have the knowledge and ability to work with children with disabilities. we revised the minimum background experience requirement to include administration in addition to supervision of staff and fiscal management. response: we revised the standard for fiscal officer qualifications, now found in paragraph (c), to clarify that programs must consider the fiscal complexity of their organization to ensure fiscal officers have sufficient knowledge and experience to fulfill their role. some commenters supported allowing one teacher in an early head start class to meet a higher qualification and for the second teacher to have the current cda qualification. [121] we have updated the statutory reference in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) to include all of the alternative credentials, including teach for america. we believe our requirement in paragraph (e)(4)(i) appropriately balances the need to strengthen requirements and acknowledge funding realities and the ability of higher education to support degrees in early childhood. response: we believe our minimum requirement of a cda for home visitors, now found in paragraph (e)(6)(i) is reasonable and in fact, given the complex nature of their work, that it is preferable for such staff to have an associate’s or baccalaureate degree in a relevant field. to strengthen the standard, we revised what is now paragraph (e)(8)(ii) to require that mental health consultants have, to the extent possible, knowledge of and experience in serving young children and their families. for example, some commenters recommended we broaden the requirement for using child development specialists with associate’s degrees in family child care to apply to migrant and seasonal programs because of challenges to find bilingual qualified staff in rural communities. instead, we focused this section on requiring programs to implement a system to ensure all staff members receive the supportive training and development they need to provide high-quality services. we also amended paragraph (b)(5) to include partnering with families as an area of the professional development for education staff. we think the requirement in paragraph (b)(5) is important to ensure program quality. some commenters recommend we include a reference to the health services advisory committee (hsac) in this section. for example, commenters suggested we broaden the focus of health and wellness or add a new standard for a daily staff health check. we discuss the comments and our rationale for any changes to the regulatory text in this section. comment: some commenters suggested that, for clarity, we eliminate the phrase “adequate record keeping” in paragraph (a) and create a new standard to address record keeping so that all of the requirements in paragraph (a) were not explicitly linked to record keeping. most of these commenters expressed concerns about the burden for programs to participate in their state’s slds and recommended that it should be encouraged to the extent practical but not required. for this same reason, we also removed the requirement to consult with experts and advisors on early childhood data systems in their state. commenters made a number of recommendations for strengthening this section, and we made small changes to the language for clarification throughout the section. response: the requirement in paragraph (a)(3) is for all programs to align with both hselof and their state early learning standards, where state standards are applicable. the intent of this requirement is to set a minimum for service areas grantees must collect data on. response: we revised paragraph (d)(2) to allow for a summary of the most recent community assessment to be included in the annual self-assessment. this section specifies that the purpose of this subpart is to establish requirements for program administration and grants management that apply to all grants under the act. other commenters suggested we increase the limit on administrative and development costs we proposed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. response: we believe the issue of access to information and records is already adequately addressed by other applicable federal and state law and a head start specific provision is not necessary. comment: commenters requested clarification on whether programs are required to have procedures for parents to inspect a child’s record or challenge the sharing of the child’s pii, and suggested we reference this subpart in subpart d health program services to ensure programs consider the privacy of child records in health program services. in this section, we describe provisions programs must follow to protect the privacy of child records and to share data. response: we intended to align this section with ferpa while meeting the needs of head start and early head start programs, and therefore a direct replication of ferpa would not be appropriate. we recognize that parents should be at the forefront when it comes to the collection, use, and sharing of the pii in respect to their child’s record. in this section, we describe recordkeeping requirements related to the protection of child privacy. comment: some commenters requested we provide the amount of time a child record must be maintained and how idea relates to record maintenance. we proposed this performance standard to clarify that if an entity meets the definition of delegate in the act, it start printed page 61365is a delegate, regardless of what a grantee calls the entity to which it has delegated all or part of the responsibility for operating the program. this section includes requirements from section 641a(d) of the act with respect to the evaluation of delegate agencies and corrective actions in the event of a deficiency. this subpart implements the statutory requirements related to facilities in section 644(c), (f), and (g) of the act. we also revised the language to clarify that a purchase includes both principal and interest payments on approved loans in accordance with section 644(g)(2) of the act. response: we currently require grantees to submit a proposed lease in paragraph (b)(1) in this section currently requires submission of a proposed lease agreement and landlord consent. we rely on environmental assessments to ensure we only fund those activities that result in safe and healthy care environments for children, families and staff whether the facility is owned or leased. response: to protect federal interest in acquired facilities or in facilities undergoing major renovations with federal funds, we believe the notice of federal interest must be filed as early as possible to avoid the superior placement of liens for materials and services that would compromise priority of the federal interest. in order to protect federal interest, we require grantees to ensure that any mortgage agreements they have include specific provisions that would mitigate our risk of loss and ensure the property remains for head start purposes. given that facilities activities involve substantial head start funds and are intended to be available for head start use as needed during the useful life of the facility, we made lease term lengths consistent. response: we did not make any changes here because flood insurance is an allowable cost to the head start award and can be included in the grantee’s application for funding. comment: some commenters asked about the applicability of the regulation including for field trips or transporting children and parents to medical appointments. some commenters requested more clarity about what constitutes “reasonable assistance.” response: this provision is intended to ensure that programs that do not provide transportation ensure that lack of such service does not pose a barrier to participation in the program for the highest need children and families. comment: one commenter objected to the removal of the former requirement that safety equipment be strategically placed and marked. we amended § 1303.72(a)(1) to specify that each child should be seated in a child restraint system appropriate to the child’s age, height and weight. comment: some commenters supported the provision in paragraph (a) of this section that children with disabilities must be transported in the same vehicles used to transport other children whenever possible. as we did not invite comments on the designation renewal system in the nprm, we cannot respond to this comment here. if a head start program loses funding for 60, 90, or more days, the program is likely to be so financially handicapped that the result could be the same as a termination of funding. in the nprm, we proposed to revise this section to align with section 646(a)(4)(c) of the act, which requires the secretary to prescribe procedures that prohibit a head start agency from using program grant funds to pay attorney fees and costs incurred during an appeal.

we did not make changes to the content of this subpart and therefore did not invite comments in the nprm. finally, we made a technical change to add a section on the purpose of this part, and renamed and redesignated the proposed section § 1305.1 to § 1305.2 in this final rule. response: we have modified the definition of enrolled to clarify that a child is not considered enrolled until they attend the program for center-based and family child care or received a home visit for home-based. in this section, we first summarize and respond to comments we received on the regulatory impact analysis in the nprm. we revised the final rule to provide greater flexibility or prevent unintended consequences that would have resulted in additional costs for many of the concerns commenters noted. response: we agree and have revised the discussion of potential benefits to include the benefits associated with allowing more head start parents to work. data collection for the pir is automated to improve efficiency in the collection and analysis of data. we have included a description of each methodology in the itemized costs and cost savings section of this analysis. in the following sections, we itemize each of the regulatory changes for which we expect there to be associated costs or cost savings in the areas of structural program option provisions, staff quality provisions, curriculum and assessment provisions, and administrative/managerial provisions. we assume that programs would choose to increase their service duration to the 1,020 annual hour requirement in a variety of ways, some by adding hours to each day of service and some by adding additional service days. as discussed above, we anticipate a different marginal cost per hour per child for the 70 percent of head start non-double session slots we assume will meet the 1,020 annual hours by adding days, because it would be necessary to extend all of the relevant child and family services for a longer program year in addition to the cost per classroom for teaching staff. therefore, we estimate the cost of meeting the 100 percent requirement for these programs to be $615,651,152. similar to the approach to estimating the cost of increasing duration for head start, to estimate the costs associated with the requirement that early head start center-based programs provide a minimum of 1,380 annual hours for all slots, we used gabi and pir data. in addition to the cost of extending center-based programs estimated for head start and early head start above, there are additional costs associated with facilities and other start-up activities for increasing duration. in response to these comments, we have retained home-based services as a standard option for preschoolers in the final rule and no longer estimate costs associated with the removal of the home-based option for head start. we then multiply this number of teachers that would no longer be needed (3,088) by the average early head start teacher salary of $26,491, doubled to account for fringe and overhead ($52,982) to get a total potential savings of $163,608,416. then we applied the proportion of head start center director’s salary paid for with head start funds (75.3 percent) to the cost by year to find the costs borne by head start and the costs borne by other parties in the table below. we used this proportion as a proxy for the proportion of children who are frequently absent, and would trigger the requirement in the rule for an additional home visit. in order to estimate the cost of this requirement, we assumed that 10 percent of children would be absent on any given day, which is 91,216 children when applied to the funded enrollment number for head start and early head start programs. using this method, we estimate the total cost for head start programs to meet this requirement to be $10,472,585. in response to comments described in the preamble of this rule, the final rule includes a requirement in § 1302.91(d)(1) that newly hired staff who oversee health, disabilities, and family support services must have a bachelor’s degree (ba). in this rule, we require programs to have a system of professional development in place that includes an intensive coaching strategy for teachers. in addition, we estimated the cost of a curricular enhancement to be $4,500 for a three year multi-site license. therefore, we assume approximately one-third of programs will use a fidelity tool and estimate the total cost of this requirement to be $33,983. in § 1302.33(a)(3) of the nprm, we explicitly stated head start programs were not required to perform initial developmental screenings for children who enter the program with a current iep or ifsp. we then found the total program-level cost to be $2,216,393 and the total parent-level cost to be $4,542,202, for a total cost of $6,758,595. this may be an over-estimate of cost given that one purpose of the mou is to better coordinate and share local resources, which may lead to savings, associated with implementation of the mou. the rule includes a requirement in § 1301.6(b) and (c) that agencies unable to resolve impasses through their own decision-making process must participate in a formal process of mediation. we obtained an estimate from a grantee on the costs of their individual appeal ($66,691) and multiplied it by two to factor in both the cost to the grantee and the delegate agency of the appeal process. we estimated the current cost of the community assessment and assumed a reduction in costs of 40 percent, based on the change from three to five years. further, we applied the proportion of the education manager’s salary paid for with head start funds (71.5 percent) to determine the cost savings to head start and the cost savings borne by other parties. second, we estimated the cost of sharing data in order to coordinate with other programs and systems. we then applied the proportion of management salaries paid for with head start funds (67.9 percent) to estimate the total cost borne by head start and the total cost borne by other parties for the mou process. we then applied the proportion of management salaries paid for with head start funds (67.9 percent) to estimate the total cost borne by head start and the costs borne by other parties for this provision. we then applied the proportion of management salaries paid for with head start funds (67.9 percent) to estimate the total cost borne by head start and the costs borne by other parties for this provision. we then applied this cost per program to the number of programs participating in each year as described above to find the cost borne by states to be $14.314 in 2017/2018, $28,628 in 2022/2023, and $42,941 in 2025/2026. in order to maximize the effectiveness of head start and yield a high rate of return on investment, we believe it is essential to pair these improvements to the early learning experiences provided by head start with increases in program duration. [204 205] in order for head start to achieve its mission to be an effective tool in supporting children’s success in kindergarten and beyond, and for society to reap the full benefits of this investment, every head start program is providing high quality services that will promote strong and lasting child outcomes. [217] targeted instruction and small group activities are teaching practices that are particularly important to include for supporting the learning of children who are behind. taken together this research clearly indicates previous head start minimums for program operations are inadequate to achieve the results researchers and economists have shown are possible. in fy 2016, congress appropriated $294 million specifically to increase service duration for early head start and head start programs, which cover some of the costs of the duration requirements in this final rule. a start printed page 61404reduction in head start slots may is unlikely to not be fully absorbed by other programs given that other early learning programs are not universally available to all children and these programs only currently serve a fraction of the eligible population. we then applied this proportion to the total monetary cost associated with this rule, in each out-year, in fy 2016 dollars, and divided the cost that would be borne in head start slots by the average cost per slot for head start in fy 2015 ($8,035) and the cost that will be borne in early head start by the average cost per slot for early head start in fy 2015 ($12,189), which is inclusive of the cost per child for early head start-child care partnerships. finally, we applied the appropriate education staff to child ratios and caseloads for center-based program options by age, home-based, other program options to determine the total number of head start and early head start education staff jobs that would potentially be lost. as noted, congress appropriated $294 million in fy 2016 to increase the duration of early head start and head start programs. specifically, we have considered alternatives to the policy changes we have determined to be our largest cost-drivers: extension of head start center-based program duration and mentor coaching. however, the negative effects of implementing this model in such a way that could lead to significant reductions in the number of children and families served by head start programs, may outweigh the benefits. federalism is rooted in the belief that issues that are not national in scope or significance are most appropriately addressed by the level of government close to the people. in keeping with the notion that government information is a valuable asset, it also is intended to improve the practical utility, quality, and clarity of information collected, maintained, and disclosed. this requirement is consistent with the office of child care’s requirement to minimize burden on programs that operate with both head start and child care development funds. policy councils are responsible for the direction of the agency’s head start and early head start programs. a program must ensure that parents of currently enrolled children understand the process for elections to the policy council or policy committee and other leadership opportunities. this part implements these statutory requirements in sections 641a, 645, 645a, and 648a of the act by describing all of the program performance standards that are required to operate head start, early head start, american indian and alaska native and migrant or seasonal head start programs. (3) a program that meets the conditions of this paragraph (e) must annually set criteria that are approved by the policy council and the tribal council for selecting over-income pregnant women or children who would benefit from program services. a child is eligible for migrant or seasonal head start, if the family meets an eligibility criterion in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section; and the family’s income comes primarily from agricultural work. (i) if a family can provide one of the documents described in this paragraph (i)(3), program staff must describe efforts made to verify the accuracy of the information provided and state whether the family is eligible because they are homeless. a program must develop at the beginning of each enrollment year and maintain during the year a waiting list that ranks children according to the program’s selection criteria. parent participation in any program activity is voluntary, including consent for data sharing, and is not required as a condition of the child’s enrollment. if a child is unexpectedly absent and a parent has not contacted the program within one hour of program start time, the program must attempt to contact the parent to ensure the child’s well-being. (1) a program must only accept a fee from families of enrolled children for services that are in addition to services funded by head start, such as child care before or after funded head start hours. a program may consider hours of service that meet the head start program performance standards, regardless of the source of funding, as hours of planned class operations for the purposes of meeting the head start and early head start service duration requirements in this subpart. (ii) a program that is designed to meet the needs of young parents enrolled in school settings may meet the service duration requirements in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section if it operates a center-based program schedule during the school year aligned with its local education agency requirements and provides regular home-based services during the summer break. if an extension is necessary to ensure children enrolled in the program on november 7, 2016 are not displaced from the early head start or head start program, a program may request a one-year extension from the responsible hhs official of the requirements outlined in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2)(iii) of this section. a program must ensure providers have systems to ensure the safety of any child not within view for any period. a program that offers the family child care option must provide a child development specialist to support family child care providers and ensure the provision of quality services at each family child care home. all programs must implement a research-based curriculum, and screening and assessment procedures that support individualization and growth in the areas of development described in the head start early learning outcomes framework: ages birth to five and support family engagement in children’s learning and development. to support implementation of the curriculum and the requirements described in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (e) of this section a program must provide age-appropriate equipment, materials, supplies and physical space for indoor and outdoor learning environments, including functional space. (4) if a child is determined to be eligible for services under idea, the program must partner with parents and the local agency responsible for implementing idea, as appropriate, and deliver the services in subpart f of this part. (3) if a program serves a child who speaks a language other than english and qualified bilingual staff, contractors, or consultants are not able to conduct screenings and assessments, a program must use an interpreter in conjunction with a qualified staff person to conduct screenings and assessments as described in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section. (a) for all activities described in this part, programs must collaborate with parents as partners in the health and well-being of their children in a linguistically and culturally appropriate manner and communicate with parents about their child’s health needs and development concerns in a timely and effective manner. (3) if a program operates for 90 days or less, it has 30 days from the date the child first attends the program to satisfy paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section. early head start and head start funds may be used to cover those allowable costs not covered by the usda. all staff with no regular responsibility for or contact with children have initial orientation training within three months of hire; ongoing training in all state, local, tribal, federal and program-developed health and safety requirements applicable to their work; and training in the program’s emergency and disaster preparedness procedures. to support coordination between head start and publicly funded preschool programs, a program must enter into a memorandum of understanding with the appropriate local entity responsible for managing publicly funded preschool programs in the service area of the program, as described in section 642(e)(5) of the act. programs must ensure the individualized needs of children with disabilities, including but not limited to those eligible for services under idea, are being met and all children have access to and can fully participate in the full range of activities and services. a program must collaborate with parents of early head start children to implement strategies and activities that support successful transitions from early head start and, at a minimum, provide information about the child’s progress during the program year and provide strategies for parents to continue their involvement in and advocacy for the education and development of their child. (3) a program that does not operate during the summer must collaborate with school districts to determine the availability of summer school programming for children who will be entering kindergarten and work with parents and school districts to enroll children in such programs, as appropriate. a program must establish written personnel policies and procedures that are approved by the governing body and policy council or policy committee and that are available to all staff. as prescribed in section 645a(h) of the act, a program must ensure center-based teachers that provide direct services to infants and toddlers in early head start centers have a minimum of a child development associate (cda) credential or comparable credential, and have been trained or have equivalent coursework in early childhood development with a focus on infant and toddler development. a program must use mental health consultants with knowledge of and experience in serving young children and their families, if available in the community. (a) a program must provide to all new staff, consultants, and volunteers an orientation that focuses on, at a minimum, the goals and underlying philosophy of the program and on the ways they are implemented. (1) a program must implement a process for using data to identify program strengths and needs, develop and implement plans that address program needs, and continually evaluate compliance with program performance standards and progress towards achieving program goals described in paragraph (a) of this section. subpart e of this part implements the statutory requirements in section 644(c), (f) and (g) related to facilities. (4) the program must explain to the parent that the granting of consent is voluntary on the part of the parent and may be revoked at any time. (4) the program shall not destroy a child record with an outstanding request to inspect and review the record under this section. (a) a program must maintain child records in a manner that ensures only parents, and officials within the program or acting on behalf of the program have access, and such records must be destroyed within a reasonable timeframe after such records are no longer needed or required to be maintained. the grantee must submit an application that conforms to requirements in this part and in the act to the responsible hhs official. if the grantee intends to use a facility to operate a head start program and for another purpose, it must disclose what percentage of the facility will be used for non-head start activities, along with costs associated with those activities, in accordance with applicable cost principles. the abstract must include the names and addresses of start printed page 61441parties to the lease or occupancy agreement, terms of the lease or occupancy agreement, and information described in paragraphs (a)(1) through (9) of this section. this rule applies to all agencies, including those that provide transportation services, with the exceptions and exclusions provided in this section, regardless of whether such transportation is provided directly on agency owned or leased vehicles or through arrangement with a private or public transportation provider. a head start program may request to waive a specific requirement in this part, in writing, to the responsible hhs official, as part of an agency’s annual application for financial assistance or amendment and must submit any required documentation the responsible hhs official deems necessary to support the waiver. a program must ensure bid announcements for school buses and allowable alternate vehicles to transport children in its program include correct specifications and a clear statement of the vehicle’s intended use. (a) a program must ensure there are school buses or allowable alternate vehicles adapted or designed for transportation of children with disabilities available as necessary to transport such children enrolled in the program. the responsible hhs official will inform the delegate agency that it is entitled to submit written material to oppose the suspension and to participate in the informal meeting, if one is held. (3) a suspension must not exceed 30 days, unless the conditions under section 646(a)(5)(b) are applicable or the grantee requests the suspension continue for an additional period of time and the responsible hhs official agrees. (3) a suspension must not exceed 30 days, unless the conditions under section 646(a)(5)(b) are applicable or the grantee requests the suspension to continue for an additional period of time and the responsible hhs official agrees. (1) the grantee must adhere to procedures and requirements for appeals in 45 cfr part 16, file the appeal with the departmental appeals board, and serve a copy of the appeal on the responsible hhs official who issued the termination or denial of refunding notice. it is intended that these programs be administered effectively and responsibly; that applicants to administer programs receive fair and equitable consideration; and that the legal rights of current head start and early head start grantees be fully protected. in order to compete for the opportunity to be awarded a five-year grant, an agency must submit an application to the responsible hhs official that demonstrates that it is the most qualified entity to deliver a high-quality and comprehensive head start or early head start program. (a) in the case of an indian head start or early head start agency determined not to be delivering a high-quality and comprehensive head start or early head start program, the responsible hhs official will engage in government-to-government consultation with the appropriate tribal government or governments for the purpose of establishing a plan to improve the quality of the head start program or early head start program operated by the indian head start or indian early head start agency. (3) the responsible hhs official will notify the tribe, in writing, whether the alternative agency proposed by the tribe is found to be eligible for head start funding and capable of operating a head start program. an applicant must be working on the date of application in a local head start program or otherwise working in the field of child development and family services. this tool meets the requirements described in 641(c)(1)(d) and 641a(c)(2)(f) of the head start act (42 u.s.c. a score ranging from 1 (minimally characteristic) to 7 (highly characteristic) is given for each dimension and represents the extent to which that dimension is characteristic of that classroom. double session variation means a center-based option that employs a single teacher to work with one group of children in the morning and a different group of children in the afternoon. head start early learning outcomes framework: ages birth to five means the head start early learning outcomes framework: ages birth to five, which describes the skills, behaviors, and knowledge that programs must foster in all children. homeless children means the same as homeless children and youths in section 725(2) of the mckinney-vento homeless assistance act at 42 u.s.c. (1) with respect to services for migrant farm workers, a head start program that serves families who are engaged in agricultural labor and who have changed their residence from one geographic location to another in the preceding 2-year period; and, (2) with respect to services for seasonal farmworkers, a head start program that serves families who are engaged primarily in seasonal agricultural labor and who have not changed their residence to another geographic location in the preceding 2-year period. transportation services means the planned transporting of children to and from sites where an agency provides services funded under the head start act. early head start children in grade 5: long-term follow-up of the early head start research and evaluation project study sample. presented at fall 2012 conference of the association for public policy analysis and management. success outcomes of full-day kindergarten: more positive behavior and increased achievement in the years after. full-day and half-day kindergarten in the united states: findings from the early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten class of 1998-99 (nces 2004-078). washington, dc: office of head start, administration for children and families, u.s. department of health and human services. experimental evaluation of the effects of a research-based preschool mathematics curriculum. 37.  u.s. department of health and human services, administration for children and families (2015). preschool and child care expulsion and suspension: rates and predictors in one state. 49.  gilliam, w.s., & shahar, g. (2006) preschool and child care expulsion and suspension: rates and predictors in one state. full-day and half-day kindergarten in the united states: findings from the early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten class of 1998-99 (nces 2004-078). impacts of a prekindergarten program on children’s mathematics, language, literacy, executive function, and emotional skills. the effects of napping on cognitive function in preschoolers. teaching by listening: the importance of adult-child conversations to language development. sleep and adjustment in preschool children: sleep diary reports by mothers relate to behavior reports by teachers. promoting physical activity in preschoolers to prevent obesity: a review of the literature. the school entry gap: socioeconomic, family, and health factors associated with children’s school readiness to learn. 2007. issue brief: oral health is critical to the school readiness of children in washington, dc. health literacy and child health outcomes: a systematic review of the literature. the role of prenatal care in preventing low birth weight. the role of public insurance and the public delivery system in improving birth outcomes for low-income pregnant women. women’s perceptions of access to prenatal care in the united states: a literature review. the rate of return to the high/scope perry preschool program. relation of head start attendance to children’s cognitive and social outcomes: moderation by family risk. meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. the economics of early childhood investments. the effects of universal pre-k on cognitive development. towards the identification of features of effective professional development for early childhood educators: a review of the literature. the descriptive study of the head start early learning mentor coach initiative. an integrated curriculum to improve mathematics, language, and literacy for head start children. the effects of a language and literacy intervention on head start children and teachers. the timing and quality of early experiences combine to shape brain architecture: working paper no. the enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. the economics of early childhood investments. the rate of return to the high/scope perry preschool program. the rate of return to the highscope perry preschool program. work-based antipoverty programs for parents can enhance the school performance and social behavior of children. effects of georgia’s pre-k program on children’s school readiness skills: findings from the 2012-2013 evaluation study. meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. recognition & response: a model of response to intervention to promote academic learning in early education. learning, reading, and classroom supports: where we are and where we need to be going. longitudinal evaluation of a scale-up model for teaching mathematics with trajectories and technologies: persistence of effects in the third. the impact of summer setback on the reading achievement gap. relation of head start attendance to children’s cognitive and social outcomes: moderation by family risk. preschool attendance in chicago public schools: relationships with learning outcomes and reasons for absences. meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. third grade follow-up to the head start impact study final report. full-day and half-day kindergarten in the united states: findings from the early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten class of 1998-99 (nces 2004-078). preschool attendance in chicago public schools: relationships with learning outcomes and reasons for absences. impacts of a prekindergarten program on children’s mathematics, language, literacy, executive function, and emotional skills. full-day and half-day kindergarten in the united states: findings from the early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten class of 1998-99 (nces 2004-078). impacts of a prekindergarten program on children’s mathematics, language, literacy, executive function, and emotional skills. towards the identification of features of effective professional development for early childhood educators: a review of the literature. administration for children and families.

1302.36 tribal language preservation and revitalization. 1302.40 purpose. 1302.41 collaboration and communication with parents. 1302.42 child health status head start agencies that provide services to children and families must meet the head start program performance standards and the requirements set forth in the office of head start (ohs) has made some changes to the head start program performance standards (hspps) since they were published in 2016., head start performance standards pdf, head start performance standards pdf, head start performance standards 2021 pdf, head start performance standards 2020 pdf, head start performance standards 2022.

the head start program performance standards ( hspps ) define standards and minimum requirements for all head start services. they apply to both head start head start program performance standards. dfss aggregates child outcomes data three times a year, fall, winter, and spring, to track the developmental head start. program. performance. standards. 45 cfr chapter xiii. rin 0970-ac63. department of health and human services. administration for children and, head start performance standards manual, head start performance standards 2016 pdf, head start performance standards 1302, how many head start performance standards are there.

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